Khmer Literature and Culture Festival

Liger is all about project-based learning, so is our Khmer class. After publishing a Khmer poem book we decided to do something a little bit bigger to further promote the Khmer literature and culture. We put our though together and came up with an event that is going to be fun and will promote as many aspects of the Khmer literature and culture as possible. With 50 young-organizers planings and organizing, the event started to become real.

After months of preparation and planning, we’re finally ready for the big event. On the 25th of May 2019, the Khmer literature and culture at Liger prosper. Everybody dress up stunningly beautiful in the Khmer traditional clothes and filled with energy to rock the day with knowledge and fun. As the leader of the Khmer slang booth​(គ្រាមភាសា), I was rocking a Khmer traditional pant (ខោចែវ – khao-chev), and a white long-sleeve t-shirt with Angkor Wat image across the chest.

It was 9:00 am and the event has started. Students from many public schools, private school, and organization rush into every booth to see what do we have to offer. I was more than excited to have fun and teach about my topic. To attract the audience I’ve prepared something very special. I displayed a very appetizing snack on the table as the price for playing and learning about Khmer slang (គ្រាមភាសា). People gathering around my booth and very interested in learning and having fun with my topic. Loud laughs, huge smiles, and kind regards are what I receive from the crowd. I couldn’t be more proud. I am very grateful to take part in the great event and very honor in making the Khmer literature and culture prosper once again.

Soil Percolation Test Procedure (EWB internship)

This is a soil percolation and infiltration rate test procedure that I’ve research and developed for my internship project.


Testing Procedures

Soil percolation test

  • Procedure
    • Drill at least three holes with a diameter of 15 to 20 cm and a depth of 91 to 274 cm,
    • Fill the holes with water,
    • Then measure for the amount of water decreases within a period of time,
    • Use the formula (Percolation = Amount of water (ml)Time taken (min)) to calculate for the percolation rate.
  • Equipment
    • Something to dig with
    • Water
    • Timer
    • Measuring stick
  • Standard for Effluent Percolation Rate (EPR)
    • Poor soakage – 10 litre/m2/day
    • Good soakage – 15 litre/m2/day

Soil infiltration test

  • Procedure
    • Fill a 30 by 20 cm container with soil and pressure it to make it compact like the ground
    • Cut a 5 inch (127mm) PVC pipe into a 20 cm piece and make a 5 cm, a 10 cm, and a 15 cm mark on the inside of the pipe
    • Then vertically bury 5 cm of the PVC pipe into the soil in the container
    • Pour water into the buried PVC pipe then start the timer
    • Then record the time when the water reaches each mark
  • Equipment/materials
    • 5 inch PVC pipe
    • 30 x 20 cm container
    • Soil
    • Water
    • Timer
    • Notebook & Pen
    • Marker
  • Source

Water flowing through the filtration

  • Procedure
    • Start the timer when the first drop of water get to the filter in the second pit
    • Stop the timer when the water comes out of the PVC pipe into the leach field
  • Equipment
    • Timer
    • Notebook & Pen


Human Cruelty (poem)

Description: This is a very short poem that I wrote to celebrate the world poetry day in my literacy class.


A giant mushroom-like blast filled the air

A new rocket has launched

A new tragic for the world to be scare

Human is Cruel


From China to India

Millions of dollar been invested

Just to give the world a new fear

Human is Cruel


United State and North Korea

The conflict is always there

Just because of the stupid nuclear

Human is Cruel


Creating peace with guns

Nothing has changed

And yet, it’s not just begun

You see, Human is cruel!

Research Proposal for Nitrate Concentration in Drink Water

Description: This is a research proposal for my personal research project. However, the project has been forsaken because it does go along the field of my interest.


Water is an essential need for all animal on this planet, including human. In fact, approximately 60 percent of our human weight is water. From protecting tissues Spinal Cord and Joints to helping digestion to remove waste, water is playing a huge role in functioning a human body. Therefore, a person needs to drink a least 2 liters of water per day. As such, people need the best quality water possible to stay hydrated and be healthy. However, only 71.16% of the world population has access to safely managed drinking water services in 2015. Yet, this number is increasing, but due to limited infrastructure in a less developed country, the quality of the water is a questionable concern.

Cambodia for instance just came out of a civil war 40 years ago. Therefore, this country is still lacking in many infrastructures. For instance, in 2015, only 24% of the population got access to safely managed drinking water services. However, the main surface water resources in Cambodia, The Mekong River, and the Tonle Sap Lake qualify the WHO standard. Therefore, the water only needs basic treatment such as disinfection.

Water disinfection can be done using many methods including filtration and more. However, the most popular method of disinfection is chlorination: a process of adding chlorine into the water to eliminate pathogens. This method is so popular because it’s inexpensive and it’s very efficient. However, chlorination can only eliminate pathogen to prevent waterborne diseases, yet, it can’t do anything to eliminate any hazardous chemical, such as Nitrate, to prevent other health problems.

All plants and animals need nitrogen as a component of protein. Nitrogen is everywhere in the environment around us in many different forms. Nitrogen is very essential in plant growth; it’s one of the main three elements: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (NPK). Therefore, farmers from everywhere around the world would at use fertilizer with an abandon of these elements on to their crop for more yield. Cambodia for instance, have agriculture as one of the four pillars of the country economy; so in many farmlands around Cambodia, tons and tons of nitrogen have been applied each and every year. Therefore, a large quantity of nitrate is laying around the farmlands. So, in the rainy season, the excess nitrate would get to the surface water source and contaminate the water.

One of the main surface water sources of Cambodia, the Tonle Sap Lake, would expand from the area from 2500km2 in the dry season to 13000km2in the rainy season; thus, it flooded thousand km2of farmlands and circulation of chemical discharges from industry, allow the excess nitrate and other chemicals on the ground to contaminate the water. Furthermore, the rain would not only contaminate the Tonle Sap Lake; for instance, it would also cause erosion which leaks the chemicals residue into many other water sources as well. Therefore, if the contaminated water would’ve been only chlorinated, the nitrate and other chemicals would enter the human body through drinking and accumulate in the human body.

Even though all living things need nitrogen to grow and develop, the excess nitrate-nitrogen wouldn’t do any good for them. For instance, high concentrations of nitrate in drinking water can cause many harmful diseases such as Methemoglobinemia or known as “blue baby syndrome”. Methemoglobinemia happened when nitrate oxidizes the iron in   to form methemoglobin which will limit the oxygen-carrying ability of hemoglobin; thus, causing the blood to unable to provide enough oxygen to individuals body cells resulting in blue vain and skin. However, only infants and pregnant women have a high risk of getting Methemoglobinemia because a human body of age six months or older is able to turn methemoglobin back into oxyhemoglobin and allow the red blood cells to provide enough oxygen to the whole body cells. Therefore, it’s important to ensure that the concentration of nitrate in drinking water is less than 10 ml according to the WHO standard.



  1. The nitrate concentration level across the country will be lower than 10ml because there is only a small amount of fertilizer residue left on the soil that might contaminate the water.
  2. The nitrate concentration level around the Tonle Sap River will be higher than any other location due to the expansion of the of the Tonle Sap lake.



In this study, I will collect a tap water sample from their house back in their hometown during the February break of 2019. Then the water will be the water samples will be tested for Nitrate (NO3) in the RDI laboratory. I will collect the concentration level of nitrate in each sample and compare it to the WHO Standard which stated the concentration level of NO3 need to be lower than 10 ml or 10 Parts Per Million(PPM).



The health of human populations is directly dependent on the cleanliness of available drinking water. Therefore, testing for hazardous chemicals in drinking water is indispensable. Such chemical as Nitrate (NO3) is really dangerous for infants under six months of age; with a high concentration of Nitrate can cause blood disorder which leads to Methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). However, there hasn’t been any research done in Cambodia related to this topic regarding of tap water. So, this research is essential in identifying the quality and the safety of drinking water in Cambodia, to prevent disease such as Methemoglobinemia.



Activities Start date End date
Collecting water sample 23 Feb 2 March
Testing (at RDI) 10 March 15 March



The requested fund will be largely spent on testing for Nitrate concentration ($4 per sample).   

List of Proposed Purchased Materials and Cost

Nitrate Testing………………………………………………………………………………………$72.00



Works Cited

“Drinking Water Standards and Risk.” Drinking Water Quality, pp. 37–64., doi:10.1017/cbo9780511805387.003.

“Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. Https://” doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.

“Methemoglobinemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine,

“Nitrogen.” Fertilizers And Soil Acidity | Mosaic Crop Nutrition,

Oram, Brian. “Mr. Brian Oram, PG.” Pennsylvania Well Water Testing Private Wellowners Drinking Water Pennsylvania Ground Water Education Program,

Vanny, Leng, et al. “Phnom Penh’s Municipal Drinking Water Supply: Water Quality Assessment.” Sustainable Water Resources Management, vol. 1, no. 1, 2015, pp. 27–39., doi:10.1007/s40899-015-0004-9.

“Water and Sanitation.” UNICEF,

“What Is Chlorination?” Safe Drinking Water Foundation,

Yurtoğlu, Nadir. “Http://” History Studies International Journal of History, vol. 10, no. 7, 2018, pp. 241–264., doi:10.9737/hist.2018.658.

“Http://” 2017, doi:10.18411/a-2017-023.

Correlation – Statistic

Correlation in a statistic is a factor used to describe the relationship between one variable and the other variable. In a graph, there are two axes: X-axis (explanatory variable) and Y-axis (responses variable). For example, If we would use height to predict weight then the height would be the explanatory variable and the weight would be the response variable. Then we would use the data of the height and the weight to calculate for the correlation coefficient (r).


The correlation coefficient(r), rage from -1 to 1. When the r-value equal to -1, it shows that the two variables have a negative relationship/correlation; in this case, it means that as the height increase, the predicted weight will decrease. On the other hand, if the r-value would to equal to 1, the two variables will have a positive relationship/correlation which means that as the height increase the weight will also increase. Yet, if the r-value equal to 0, the two variables don’t have any relationship at all. However, a perfect r-value of -1, 0, or 1 is not a value that we’ll get calculating real datasets because real datasets won’t have such an exact relationship between real datasets.


The equation for r is r =1/n-1∑(xi-x/xs)(yi-y/ys), however, it would take forever to plug in and solve this equation; so we use the Ti3 calculator instead. In our case of using height to predict weight, we receive an r-value of .76. This value shows a high correlation between the two variables, therefore, it’s positive to use the height to predict the weight.

Watch me solving for the r and r-square value!

Lewis Dot Structure and VSEPR Model

This round in chemistry essential, I have learned so many new concepts that manoeuvre me deeper into the world of chemistry. For instance, we were learning about the Lewis Dot Structure and Vsepr Model. These two concepts were very interesting to me because it gives me a better sense of how chemical bond together at the atom level.

Lewis dot structure is a diagram that shows how atoms are bonding together and how many lone pairs of electrons are there in the molecule. For example, if we have an element of Phosphorus trifluoride (PF3), we would start off by looking for the valence electrons. In this case, the valence electrons for Phosphorus and the three Fluorine is 5 and 21 respectively. Then, we would draw P (symbol for Phosphorus) in the middle of the diagram since it’s less electronegative with five dots (representing the valence electrons) around it. However, the dots can’t just be laying everywhere around the P: It needs to be placed on the four sides of the P (top, right, bottom, and left.) Then we need to define the bonding between P and the three Fluorine (F3). Since Phosphorus has three valence electrons, it only needs 3 more to get to the stable stage. Therefore, it can share its three individuals electrons with the other three individuals electrons from the three fluorine. So we can draw three lines from P to the three fluorine with a free pair of electrons on the top of P and 6 free pairs of electrons around each F.

Lewis dot structure of PF3

Afterwards, we can also turn this structure into a 3D model using the VSEPR model. Since this diagram got three bonds with a free pair of electrons on the centre atom, it falls under the category of Trigonal Pyramidal.

VSEPR model of PF3
3D VSEPR model of PF3

Flame Lap

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms (google.) Chemistry is one of the four essential classes Liger provide this year. Two years ago, we got introduce to chemistry by a Princeton student. Back then we were just learning the very basic of this subject which include atoms and significant figure etc. For this first round, we were basic review stuff that we learn two years ago with the new facilitator. Yet, we did experiments/labs along with the topic we went over. My most favorite lab so far is the flame lab. In this lab, we were basically testing different salt on fire to see the change in color of the flame. So first we deep a popsicle sticks in fresh water, then deep it into the salt, and then put on the fire. By heating the salt up is like adding energy into the atoms. Therefore, it makes the electrons shift from the inner shell to outer shell which produces photons in the process: create colors. My most favorite reaction is when the fire reacted with the Copper Chlorine.

When Copper Chlorine reacted with fire.

The Book of Khmer Poem

There are so many aspects that make Liger different from the public school one of those is the curriculum. At Liger, most of the class were conducted in English, yet we still spend 5 hours a week learning our native language: Khmer. Unlike the classes in public school, our Khmer class also have small projects like research papers and poems. At the end of last year, we started to write poems about any topic we like. Then now, at the beginning of this year, we decided to turn those poems into a book along with some research about the different type of poem and their history. After the book is finished, we have a showcase at the Khmer Literature Festival in Battambang province. Surprisingly, we got a lot of support: we sold out all of our printed books. After the showcase, we found out that there are some parts of the book that needs to be further edited before another showcase in Phnom Penh Book Fare in December.

2016/2017 Yearly Reflection

Agency is a really important thing for Liger. Over the years, Liger has created and given many opportunities for us in terms of changing Cambodia. However, we can’t, change this splendid country instantly. But the opportunities that Liger has provided us in these last few years, has helped us make many positive changes in Cambodia. The changes that we created are not huge. However, these small changes are building blocks that lead up to big changes in our country. This year, Liger has provided us many opportunities that potentially could help Cambodia in a really positive way. For instance, I’ve involved in many explorations that potentially make changes in Cambodia, like Game Design, Waste Management, and Khmer Rouge.

Education is really important for Changes. This is the first exploration of the year, and the exploration that I think could really create positive change in Cambodian education is Game Design. For this project our team working to design a game that both fun and educational for government school students. While designing this game I felt really strongly that this game could really change Cambodian curriculum. The game that we’re designing is a game that contains two major aspects. Well, first it helps students to review their lesson in the class by answering the question in the game. Second, it introduced students to Climate Change. The game mechanic work by players answers the question in the game to get point. Players could use those point to implement solutions due to climate change such as wind turbines, solar panels, Hydropower and more. When players implement those solutions they would earn something called carbon credit, where the player with the most carbon credit will win the game. While player implementing the solution they will read a small introductory paragraph about the solution that is implementing. Not just that students reviewing the content that they’re studying and climate change, the game also require students to use their critical thinking/strategy to win the game. This game would create a new style of learning for students, which not just sitting classroom listen to teachers talk. This changing in learning style would help students to develop their strength on critical thinking and study with more fun. By this new way of learning would lead students to big success.

Game testing at Chbar Ampov high school.
Students having fun testing our game.

Trash is always a huge problem for Cambodia. In the last decade, Cambodian people got a much better education and understand we even more about this problem. They always want to make it better but there’s lag of solution. For my second exploration, we worked on this problem. We got an idea of running a waste management business in the community around Liger. It impossible to run this business in seven weeks. However, there’s a quote says “Million miles start with the first step”. So our first step in order to start this business is to write a feasibility study. A feasibility study is a study to see the possibility in term of doing something. In this case, we try to see is it possible to start this business. Which mean establish and make a profit out of it. In order to write this feasibility study first, we go out into the community and observe the trash pile around our community and analyze what in those pile. We see that about 80% of those trash and organic. So we decide that we’re going to make a composting/recycling business. Then we start to write our feasibility study for this business. At the end of the exploration, we have written a FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A WASTE MANAGEMENT/RECYCLE FACILITY IN CHUMPOUS KAEK VILLAGE. Even though we haven’t done any of the physical work to start the business but, writing this feasibility is a huge step. It’s locomotion for our business. Unfortunately, we couldn’t establish this business yet this year, however, we going to continue this project next year. This business is potentially a huge solution to trash problem all around Cambodia. It going to help Cambodian people to clean their environment.

Link to the Feasibility Study 

We’re observing a trash pile near our school.
Writing our feasibility study

Khmer Rouge, the third world biggest genocide, is happening in Cambodia for about 3 years which from 1975 to 1979. However, many Cambodian doesn’t really know much about it. So Liger had created a four rounds exploration learning about Khmer Rouge. After we learn whole lots of content, we’re going to make our final product to share with other people on sharing and other events. I actually learn in the last round of Khmer Rouge. For this round unlike any other rounds where they learning in depth about each specific part of Khmer Rouge, we’re learning about the whole picture. Which contain before, during, and after the Khmer Rouge. After we learn all the content in class, we finally work on our final products for our exploration in order to share it with other people.

In the past Khmer Rouge exploration, there’ve been so many amazing products that are unique and really powerful. These amazing products include plays, audio tour, painting and small museums. My exploration makes a variety of products; most of our products are just some new information about Khmer Rouge such as Khmer rouge timeline, a 3D design of S21, and a map with Khmer Rouge zone leaders. But our biggest goal is to run an event with DC-cam in Phnom Penh in order to spread more information about Khmer Rouge. This event going to happen next year since we don’t have enough time to do it this year. However, this event going to be a really powerful event in term of sharing Khmer Rouge information through young Cambodian. This event is more than just presentation to groups of people, we try to give them as much information as we can by play and experiential presentation. By this event, we sure that Cambodian will know Khmer Rouge even more detail. Also, this will help guide young leader to not step on the footprint of those terrible leaders again.

Trip to S-21 prison
Trip to Choeung Ek killing field

In conclusion,  I can see that I’m a change agent. Throughout my three explorations, I’ve been working to change the style of learning (game design exploration), helping to clean the environment by writing a feasibility study for a composting and recycling business, and working to share Khmer Rouge’s  information to young Cambodian. Follow this small actions, could make really big positive changes in Cambodia.


Friction Lab

In any science class at Liger, we’re always doing some sort of experiment/lab in order to extend our knowledge and understanding. For instance, in a physic class, we were learning about coefficient of friction. So we made up a lab for this content. The lab was simple; so we have a plank of wood with a bunch of surfaces such as deference type of send papers and fabric. For the sliding objects, we got paper clip box, a puzzle block, and a domino. Ideally, we try to determine the minimum angle at which the object start sliding down the ramp. So basically my team slightly drop the object on the ramp with a certain angle and see if the object is sliding. If the object is sliding, we then degrees the angle of the ramp to find the minimum angle then record it.

Our data collection